The announcement Monday came after a decade-long investigation into allegations by a former member that the church swindled her out of more than €20,000 ($28,400).
The Paris prosecutor's office had recommended the charges be dropped.
France considers the Church of Scientology a sect. In 2002, a French court fined the Paris branch of the church for a data protection violation but acquitted it of attempted fraud and false advertising charges.
The church was founded in 1954 by L. Ron Hubbard and counts actor Tom Cruise among its members. It teaches that technology can expand the mind and help solve problems.